The papers presented in this publication are mainly concerned with one of the central objectives of the EMPIRE project (Empirical Methods in Bioethics): to investigate the ways in which data generated by empirical research can be relevant to bioethical thinking and regulation concerning health care and human use of biotechnology, but also touch on the issue of what kind of empirical research is most relevant in this context. These questions are approached in a number of ways, from the very theoretical to the more practical. Some are skeptical to the use of empirical research and data, whereas others are much more positive. They thereby reflect the full breadth of the analysis carried out as part of the project. The EMPIRE project is sponsored by the European Commission, DG-Research as part of the Quality of Life and Management of Living Resources research program.