This book defines the concepts, history, and controversies of American federalism. This encyclopedia explains the major concepts, institutions, court cases, epochs, personalities, and policies that have shaped, or been shaped by, American federalism. It describes federalism's creation and evolution, and its influence on governmental institutions, procedures, and policies at the local, state, and national levels. The models used to explain the various historical eras in the development of federalism are also included. Over 430 topics relating to American federalism are described. Included are descriptions of how the major and minor institutions of American government fit into the federal system and affect it; descriptions of many of the court cases and legal concepts that have shaped American federalism; and descriptions of how federalism influenced the creation and implementation of many public policies. Sidebars further illuminate the concepts examined including relevant sections of the Constitution and other examples. This book addresses a defining issue in U.S. history and politics, discusses recent controversies over policy and power between the federal, state, and local govern The entries are written by some of the top academic experts on American federalism.