Past studies revealed that HIV infection may implicate diverse cardiac diseases such as cardiomyopathy, coronary heart disease, cardiac neoplasms, endocarditis or pericarditis. In addition, it was found that highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) often causes - as an adverse effect - a metabolic syndrome characterized by lipodystrophy/lipoatrophy, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, leading to an increase in coronary artery disease and stroke. This book focuses on the most recent findings in HIV-associated heart disease and HAART-associated metabolic and cardiovascular complications. In a first part, the epidemiology, pathogenesis and molecular biology of HIV-associated cardiovascular disease, pulmonary hypertension, lipodystrophy and HAART-associated metabolic syndrome are reviewed. The second part offers clinical and therapeutic insights into HIV/HAART-associated atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, stroke, vasculitic syndromes, and pulmonary hypertension.