This volume summarizes the results of the MARGO international working group, with the aim to develop an updated and harmonised reconstruction of sea surface temperatures and sea-ice extent of the Last Glacial Maximum oceans. The MARGO approach differs from previous efforts by developing and consistently applying measures of various aspects of reconstruction reliability, and by combining faunal and geochemical proxies. In 14 papers, the volume provides a comprehensive review of earlier work and a series of new, proxy-specific reconstructions based on census counts of planktonic foraminifera, diatoms, radiolaria and dinoflagellate cysts as well as on Mg/Ca measurements in planktonic foraminifera. The approach of harmonising the calibration and application of different proxies is described in detail, various paleothermometry techniques and their results are compared and the challenge of treating sparsely sampled data as the basis for ocean circulation models is addressed. The use of stable oxygen isotope composition of foraminiferal shells as a proxy for past sea water composition is comprehensively reassessed, and a new approach to the transfer function paleothermometer is presented. This volume represents a landmark contribution to the understanding of ice-age oceanography as well as the proxies used to reconstruct past ocean states. The results will form the basis for forcing and validation of ocean circulation models. It includes new regional reconstructions of Last Glacial Maximum ocean temperatures and sea ice cover. It is a compilation of new calibration and fossil datasets as well as documentation of techniques and approaches to paleoenvironmental reconstructions. It offers a comparison of techniques, proxies and modelling approaches.