Making nanomaterials and steering structure build-up on the nanoscale requires different tools than those for shaping a workpiece. Electricity and electric fields have proven their suitability and merit in nanomaterial synthesis and as structural guides during the formation of nanostructures at sizes where mechanical guidance becomes difficult. In addition, nanomaterials have added a new dimension to electrochemistry with previously unknown possibilities for controlling and fine-tuning reaction parameters so as to yield the desired results. Providing the vital link between these two worlds, this reference and handbook covers advances in electrochemistry through the nanoscale control of electrode structures, as well as advances in nanotechnology through electrochemical synthesis strategies. It demonstrates how electrochemical methods are of great scientific and commercial interest due to their low cost and high efficiency, and includes the synthesis of nanowires, nanoparticles, nanoporous and layered nanomaterials of various compositions, as well as their applications -- ranging from superior electrode materials to energy storage, biosensors, and electroanalytical devices.