Policy implications of current research on taxation and government expenditure programs; topies include issues relevant to current policy debates. This NBER series presents current academic research findings in the areas of taxation and government spending. The papers included provide important background information for policy analysts in government and the private sector without making specific policy recommendations. The papers in Volume 19 address issues relevant to current policy debates as well as questions that are of longer-term interest. Topics include a comparison of federal, state, and local pre-kindergarten educational programs, the cost-effectiveness of different health insurance reform proposals, economic growth in countries with low marginal corporate income tax rates, the disparity between corporate income as reported to investors and as calculated for corporate tax liability, and the relationship between pyramidal structures and the taxation of intercorporate dividends.