The environmental imperative exerts strong pressure on polluting industries in the industrialized countries. Environmentally-friendly technologies are available but often at prohibitive costs. Using evidence from the copper industry, this book addresses the question of how polluting industries in developing and transition economies have responded to this challenge. Technological Change and the Environmental Imperative considers the extent of the success of polluting industries in becoming cost-efficient while acquiring less polluting technologies, in the face of fierce competition. The authors also discuss what has been the impact of privatization on this process and what lessons have been learned. Against this backdrop, and drawing on case material from Chile, China, Peru and Russia, the book goes on to assess the latest technological breakthroughs, and their possible future impact on cost efficiency and the environment. International organizations, policymakers and industry analysts concerned with environmental issues will find this book of great fascination, as will academics and researchers in the fields of development studies, transition economies and environmental studies.