This six-volume set presents cutting-edge advances and applications of expert systems Expert systems is one of the primary speciality areas in the vast domain of artificial intelligence. Because the subject of artificial intelligence is so broad, this reference work focuses on the real world applications of expert systems. An expert system is a knowledge-based computer system that emulates the decision-making ability of a human expert. The primary role of the expert system is to perform appropriate functions under the close supervision of the human, whose work is supported by that expert system. In the reverse, this same expert system can monitor and double check the human in the performance of a task. Human-computer interaction in our highly complex world requires the development of a wide array of expert systems.