While the moral, ethical, social and political arguments for taking action are becoming ever more persuasive and more widely accepted, both the management and stakeholders of food and beverage service operations need to have clear commercial reasons for investing time and money in environmental and social initiatives. We present the two sides to commercial motivation: incentives that reward action and penalties for failure to act. A variety of new opportunities are presented to restaurant operations to save costs through more efficient usage of utilities and foodstuffs. Lower waste disposal costs. Increased customer base with green consumers and improved relations with the local community. Better staff morale resulting in lower turnover, lower absenteism and greater commitment to quality. On the downside, for those businesses that do not act risk several negative impacts. Brand image is likely to be tarnished. Market share will be lost and some shareholders will not be attracted by a poor public profile. Lastly, there is a growing trend towards stricter environmental legislation, action taken in advance will make it easier to meet new laws as they come into force in the future.