Cancer and other genetic human diseases are caused by a variety of mutations, ranging from subtle sequence changes to larger genomic rearrangements and alterations in chromosome number (aneuploidy). With contributions by reputed experts, this book aims to update the knowledge on the multiple mechanisms of genomic instability leading to human disease. Emphasis is given to the different types of genomic sequences involved in disease-related genomic rearrangements as well as to the various exogenous factors increasing the frequency of mutations. Several chapters are dedicated to the dysfunction of important cellular mechanisms like DNA repair and chromosome segregation, which may cause genomic instability and result in tumorigenesis. Important 'caretaker' genes controlling the stability of our genome have been identified through their defect in genomic instability syndromes, which are also extensively reviewed in this volume.