Place names are a window into the history and characteristics of a country. Their names reflect the migrations of peoples, their religious and cultural traditions, local languages, conquests and fortifications long since disappeared. They also reflect the topography and industrial development of a place. The text is ordered by country alphabetically. The book will include a historical section, putting the place name into context, and references those events, which have had an impact on the geography of a country, and those foreign influences, which have played a part in shaping the place name. This volume is confined to the 38 countries of Europe, together with Andorra, Gibraltar, Liechtenstein, Malta, Monaco, San Marino, Cyprus and the Vatican City. All place names of cities and towns of particular importance and interest are included. Detailed maps accompany the text to illustrate change and evolution.